Mussolini: the Fake Quote

Mussolini on the Corporate State:
Debunking a Hoax Quote

by Chip Berlet

Fake quote–> “Fascism should more properly
be called corporatism because it is the merger of state
and corporate power.”

— Benito Mussolini <–Not True

A Google™ search on January 12, 2005 turned up some 5,000 hits
on the following “quote”

In 2015 there were over 10,000 hits,
but some of them now note
it is a fabricated quote


He Never Wrote It!

When Mussolini wrote about corporatism, he was not writing about modern commercial corporations.
He was writing about a form of vertical syndicalist corporatism based on early guilds.


This specific article on Wikipedia on Corporatism
explains this rather well.

Most scholars of fascism dismiss not only the fake Mussolini quote, but other dubious sources of information that claim that “late stage” or other forms of advanced capitalism or “neoliberalism” are all undifferentiated forms of naked fascism:

The book “Friendly Fascism” is a popular argument in this regard.

Gross, Bertram Myron. Friendly fascism. New York: M. Evans, 1980.
Alas, while well-intentioned, the book is highly misleading, especially in the erroneous conflation of the Italian word “corporatism” with contemporary business corporations. This specific article on Wikipedia on Definitions of Fascism explains this all rather well.
Georgi Dimitrov’s definition of fascism at the
Seventh World Congress of the Communist International
is often abbreviated to this snippet:

“Fascism is the open terroristic dictatorship of the most reactionary, most chauvinistic, and most imperialist elements of finance capital.”

This is a seriously misleading misquote
and inadequate summary what Dimitrov actually wrote:

Click here for the details.

…And even Dimitrov began his speech by crediting an earlier study–yet failed to mention that it was written by Clara Zetkin in 1923.

The Fake Mussolini Quote

The fake quote is generally attributed to an article written by Mussolini in the 1932 Enciclopedia Italiana with the assistance of Giovanni Gentile, the editor. The quote, however, does not appear in the Enciclopedia Italiana in the original Italian.

It does not appear in the official English translation of that article: Benito Mussolini, 1935, “The Doctrine of Fascism,” Firenze: Vallecchi Editore.

And it does not appear in the longer treatment of the subject by Mussolini in: Benito Mussolini, 1935, “Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions,” Rome: ‘Ardita’ Publishers.

Where the quote comes from remains a mystery, and while it is possible Mussolini said it someplace at some time, a number of researchers have been unable to find it after years of research.

It is unlikely that Mussolini ever made this statement because it contradicts most of the other writing he did on the subject of corporatism and corporations. When Mussolini wrote about corporatism, he was not writing about modern commercial corporations. He was writing about a form of vertical syndicalist corporatism based on early guilds. The article on Wikipedia on Corporatism explains this rather well.

Here are some typical Mussolini quotes from original documents:

The Fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value. Thus understood, Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State–a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values–interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people. (p. 14)

Fascism recognises the real needs which gave rise to socialism and trade-unionism, giving them due weight in the guild or corporative system in which diverent interests are coordinated and harmonised in the unity of the State. (p.15)

Yet if anyone cares to read over the now crumbling minutes giving an account of the meetings at which the Italian Fasci di Combattimento were founded, he will find not a doctrine but a series of pointers… (p. 23)

“It may be objected that this program implies a return to the guilds (corporazioni). No matter!… I therefore hope this assembly will accept the economic claims advanced by national syndicalism.” (p. 24)

Fascism is definitely and absolutely opposed to the doctrines of liberalism, both in the political and economic sphere. (p. 32)

The Fascist State lays claim to rule in the economic field no less than in others; it makes its action felt throughout the length and breadth of the country by means of its corporate, social, and educational institutions, and all the political, economic, and spiritual forces of the nation, organised in their respective associations, circulate within the State. (p. 41).

Benito Mussolini, 1935, The Doctrine of Fascism, Firenze: Vallecchi Editore.

The Labour Charter (Promulgated by the Grand Council ofr Fascism on April 21, 1927)—(published in the Gazzetta Ufficiale, April 3, 1927) [sic] (p. 133)

The Corporate State and its Organization (p. 133)

The corporate State considers that private enterprise in the sphere of production is the most effective and usefu [sic] [typo-should be: useful] instrument in the interest of the nation. In view of the fact that private organisation of production is a function of national concern, the organiser of the enterprise is responsible to the State for the direction given to production.

State intervention in economic production arises only when private initiative is lacking or insufficient, or when the political interests of the State are involved. This intervention may take the form of control, assistance or direct management. (pp. 135-136)

Benito Mussolini, 1935, Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions, Rome: ‘Ardita’ Publishers.


Note to Chris Hedges:
please stop using this fake quote